Briefs and Reports

Saving a trillion dollars with a universal coronavirus vaccine

What if we had a vaccine that protected against all major illness-causing coronaviruses? An Advanced Market Commitment to Incentivize a Universal Coronavirus Vaccine Before the Next Variant explains how few billion dollars in the form of an advanced market commitment could stimulate the development of such a vaccine. Just counting averted deaths alone, it could be worth $1.08 trillion in value.

Air Safety to Combat Global Catastrophic Biorisk

One day, humanity may look back on things like flu like you and I look at cholera today: the unpleasant but inevitable outcome of a failure to clean things properly. Like we use chlorine to clean our water, we may end up using far-UV light, proper filtration, and ventilation to rid the air of contamination on a massive scale. Air Safety to Combat Global Catastrophic Biorisk, a collaborative effort between 1Day Sooner and Rethink Priorities, outlines the next steps to get there.

1Day Volunteers Driven Primarily by Altruism

1Day Sooner’s research team analyzed survey data about COVID-19 human challenge trial volunteers, with the results published in PLOS ONE in November 2022.

40 years of challenge studies and zero deaths

Read the systematic review of human challenge studies from 1980 to 2021 in Clinical Infectious Diseases.

Exploring the risks of human challenge trials for COVID-19

We introduce an interactive model for exploring some risks of a SARS-COV-2 dosing study, a prerequisite for any COVID-19 challenge trials. Read the full paper here.


1Day Sooner’s challenge trial model estimates the risk of death and hospitalization for potential participants in a COVID-19 human challenge trial. Users can adjust the expected risks based on the ages of participants, their gender, their pre-existing health level, and number of participants in a COVID-19 challenge trial. Analogous risks are displayed at the top of the model.

Long-Term Risks of COVID-19

Current literature most prominently supports both cardiopulmonary and neurological long-term effects. Many of these effects appear to be linked to the severity of COVID-19 infection; populations that are younger, more female, and healthier than normal may suffer less from COVID-19. It is too early to definitively say to what degree cardiac or pulmonary damage is permanent; however, it is possible that other organs such as the kidneys and testicles may be implicated in long-term damage.

COVID-19 reinfection summary

How high is the risk of reinfection for a COVID-19 survivor? For healthy adults, the risk appears to be generally small, similar to that of infection after vaccination. However, a variety of factors may increase it. These include a weak immune response, the time passed since the first infection, and the possibility that the second strain of SARS-CoV-2 may be different from the first one. Our report is a summary of the current research on COVID-19 reinfection, with the goals of explaining what is already known, and describing the role of human challenge trials in advancing this knowledge.


1Day Sooner’s report reviews current and proposed efforts for a universal influenza vaccine, and provides some background information on influenza relevant to universal vaccine development through human challenge trials. It does not attempt a comprehensive overview of the field of influenza vaccine development— those interested in an in-depth approach are encouraged to look at NIAD’s roadmap for universal influenza vaccine development. We also provide a resource repository of relevant literature.

Treatments for COVID-19

Scientists are researching many potential treatments for COVID-19. The following report includes a deep dive into the latest clinical literature on several promising treatments for COVID-19 (listed below). The 1Day Sooner research team is working on a more concise and accessible version of the report for those interested.
  • Remdesivir
  • Convalescent Plasma
  • Dexamethasone
  • Interferon Beta (SNG001)
  • Monoclonal Antibodies
  • EIDD-2801

Ethical Considerations for Challenge Trials

Informed consent forms the cornerstone of contemporary medical ethics. A COVID-19 human challenge trial imposes unusual burdens and risks on healthy participants. It is therefore critical that research personnel create a robust screening and informed consent process to ensure participants do not find themselves subject to burdens and risks to which they might not have otherwise consented.

This report attempts to identify, evaluate and address barriers to genuine informed consent that arise in this novel context at various stages in the informed consent process. These stages include: selection of participants, training of personnel, screening, providing information, giving of consent, and ongoing consent until the end of the study.